Tech Focus: Optimising for the Cloud

Digital Foundry on understanding the challenges of cloud gaming development

The furore last week over GameStop's decision to remove OnLive redeem codes from US PC versions of Deus Ex: Human Revolution overshadowed what must surely be one of the most gutsy, impressive marketing moves we've seen in the industry for quite some time.

The notion of including another SKU of the game within the PC release not only adds a great deal of value for the end-user but is a superb promotional idea from OnLive. It also challenges sceptics to play the exact same game both locally and via the cloud and invites them to make their own conclusions about the quality of the service on offer.

The inclusion of Deus Ex: Human Revolution is a canny choice for many reasons. For a start, it's the biggest game we've seen released in months, establishing OnLive in users' minds as a service that can attract big-name games day and date with existing platforms - even though EA and Activision releases remain conspicuous by their absence. On a technical level, Human Revolution is a game where the visual make-up and basic gameplay style is a relatively good fit with a system that exchanges fidelity for convenience. In short, OnLive has limitations, but the make-up of this game won't particularly highlight them at anything like their worst.

The question is, what are these limitations and based on what we know about cloud streaming systems in the here and now, what should games developers be aware of? To what extent is it actually possible to optimise for OnLive?

OnLive's Deus Ex pack-in deal challenges sceptics to play the exact same game both locally and via the cloud and invites them to make their own conclusions about the quality of the service on offer.

I spent some time with the service recently, hooking up to the service using Eurogamer Networks' mind-bogglingly fast 100mbps leased line in its Brighton-based offices and was intrigued to see what had changed and improved with the system since its release just after E3 in 2010, where the system was put through its paces using a 25mbps internet connection.

In both these tests we were essentially looking at something approaching a best case scenario for the system. OnLive caps out at around 5mbps for its visuals and audio and this won't change by having a vastly over-spec internet connection. However, typically the more bandwidth available, the lower latencies are likely to be. While there has been discussion of improvements to "the algorithm" and talk of "tuning latency", the overall experience between then and now was remarkably similar.

There has previously been talk of OnLive's proprietary video compression, but in truth, it seems to act very much like the industry standard h.264 and almost certainly uses a variation based on a concept dubbed "periodic intra refresh".

The usual way to compress video is to kick off with a reference frame (or intra frame/I-frame) with subsequent frames describing the differences before a new reference frame comes along. Put in really basic terms, cloud video streaming systems like OnLive and Gaikai work differently, by splitting the image into rectangles and sending reference data more frequently on a "per rectangle" basis rather than using the traditional intra frame. Clever as it is, it doesn't fundamentally impact the basics of video compression: the more difference there is between frames, the more changes need to be crammed into the available bandwidth. When there is not enough bandwidth to detail the changes, ugly compression artifacts can occur.

Here's a comparison between the PC version of Batman: Arkham Asylum and its OnLive counterpart. We've slowed the video down and hand-encoded the file to ensure that picture quality is as pristine as possible. As you can see, the OnLive representation of this game isn't bad at all - the game aesthetic is a good match for the compression technology.

In a fast-moving, colourful game where the majority of the screen is in motion (Disney's Split/Second, available on OnLive is a good example) you will undoubtedly experience a big reduction in video quality compared to the local experience to the point where as a games developer you might wonder why you invested so much time creating intricate, detailed visuals that don't actually get fully resolved on the user's screen. On the flipside, a game along the lines of Rocksteady's Batman Arkham Asylum - dark, muted, with limited motion - can look quite decent indeed.

Away from video quality, the other element to bear in mind is latency. OnLive's performance here surprises many. Play the same Split/Second game I just griped about via OnLive and it is clearly playable. However, move to a shooting game and the latency is more pronounced, particularly when it comes to precision aiming.

OnLive has recently talked about "tuning latency" but the bottom line is that decoding video will have a set latency and transmission from the server will have at best a minimum lag - so this basically leaves encoding on the host server as a tweakable variable. In theory a less efficient encode can be achieved more quickly, but it's difficult to imagine that OnLive would want to compromise picture quality still further. I'd really like to know on what basis latency can be "tuned", but technical discussion is rarely forthcoming from OnLive.

So what can be done to get the best results from a system that inevitably must compromise core components of the gameplay experience? From a picture quality perspective, there's very little that can be done, short of hoping for some kind of video encoding miracle (or for a significant increase in bandwidth in future, which is perhaps more likely). The bottom line is that a slow-paced game will retain much more quality than an ultra-fast, colourful racing title - emphasising why Deus Ex: Human Revolution is perhaps such a good title to use in promoting OnLive.

You can imagine that from a picture quality perspective at least, casual games, puzzle games, RPGs and real-time strategy games would be a much better fit for the system than high-speed racing and shooting games. However, video compression was never really designed for precision computer visuals, so it may well be that there would be some advantages to working with a post-process filter along the lines of NVIDIA's FXAA, which seeks to reduce jaggies and aliasing by applying a heuristic blur to the image. An offshoot of this kind of work could result in some useful improvements to picture quality and compression efficiency via cloud-based delivery.

Another thing to bear in mind with streaming video is that the precision of HDMI/DVI's 24-bit RGB is lost in favour of a pixel format known as YV12, which effectively halves bandwidth even before any conventional video compression algorithms are applied. Chroma resolution is lost, which means that even if bandwidth isn't a problem, picture detail using pure reds or blues will look much blockier than they do locally. Typically, steering clear of these colours is a very smart move indeed, particularly on persistent HUD elements.

When it comes to latency, there is more that the developer can do from a performance perspective. We've taken a look at a number of OnLive titles and sought to compare their settings and performance with the same titles on a range of conventional PCs. Our educated guess is that in the here and now, OnLive servers dedicate a set amount of processing and GPU power to each game instance: a modest Core 2 Duo's worth of CPU might, combined with an entry level enthusiast graphics card along the lines of a 9800GTX or 9800GT.

OnLive almost certainly suggests a certain spec level for developers to adhere to and the key here would be to optimise to that platform and get as close to 60Hz performance as possible. While OnLive beams across a 60Hz 720p video stream to its customers, it's fair to say that only a few games consistently hit the target 60FPS, resulting in judder with motion and a variance in response. In our testing, Assassin's Creed 2 was a particular offender and we saw response between 150ms to 216ms - and that's without factoring in additional lag from flatpanel displays which can be anything from 16ms to over 50ms.

Moving to a consistent 60Hz will undoubtedly help reduce lag, but there are plenty of programming techniques that can reduce internal latency - our recent Battle Against Latency feature describes how this can be measured and talks about how Criterion Games worked to reduce lag on Need for Speed: Hot Pursuit (running at 30FPS) to within one frame of controller response from the 60FPS Burnout Paradise.

At the end of the day, the exercise here is to recognise that the cloud adds an additional overhead to what's already in the game, so the lower the internal latency, the less noticeable it will be once it's plumbed into the cloud architecture.

Programmer-side optimisations can definitely make a difference. The PC version of Need for Speed: Hot Pursuit could easily hit a sustained 60Hz on what we believe is the target OnLive platform, and it offers a phenomenal response of just 50ms - pretty much a best case scenario for adding cloud infrastructure on top. By contrast, with Epic's Bulletstorm we measured controller latency at 83ms (on a Core i7/580GTX system) up against 133ms on the Xbox 360. That's a difference of three frames or 50ms, and cloud architecture can get a hell of a lot done in that window: the frame could be fully encoded and well on its way to the client in that timescale. It's by making the most of this difference that the latency gap between the home and cloud experiences can be plugged.

The exercise here is to recognise that the cloud adds an additional overhead to what's already in the game, so the lower the internal latency, the less noticeable it will be once it's plumbed into the cloud architecture.

At this point, the question is: is all the extra effort really worth it? Will the target customer notice or even care? From a visual perspective, there are literally hundreds of millions - perhaps billions - of people who would happily watch a movie on YouTube rather than watch the same film on DVD or Blu-ray. They are happy to exchange fidelity for convenience, and in a world where even standard def satellite MPEG2 TV imagery is awash with macroblocks, it may well be that non-gamers don't really care so much about the quality of the visuals so long as the experience is fun.

Similarly, an OnLive latency of 150ms-200ms may well have zero relevance to this audience as long as it "feels" playable and predictably, company boss Steve Perlman has come up with this line of argument in recent comments. However, I feel that it is easy to dismiss casual gamers are being non-discerning players, but I feel that there is a real danger here in doing so.

Our input latency measurements from the US launch of OnLive. In a best case scenario we get 150ms. Not great by local standards, but pretty much a bona fide miracle from a technological standpoint. However, the variations on a title by title basis can be alarming.

Let's talk about latency first. It's all very well to describe a game as being "playable" but this does a disservice to a lot of the nuances that designers put into their all-important control systems. If latency isn't an issue, why did Criterion put so much effort into making the most responsive racing game of the modern age? After all, Need for Speed is a brand with a great deal of penetration into the mainstream audience that OnLive must surely covet. Why did Guerrilla Games cut down lag so much between Killzone 2 and Killzone 3? The answer in both cases is really straightforward: because it matters, because it made the games more fun.

The reality is that there's a gulf between a game being functionally playable, and feeling "right". In my recent OnLive test session on Eurogamer's 100mbps line, Red Faction Armageddon simply wasn't as fun as it was on 360 and PS3 because aiming - the most basic game mechanic - was compromised to a certain extent by the lag and it's difficult to imagine how Volition could have improved it. I'm reminded of the ways Guerrilla Games tried and ultimately failed to improve Killzone 2 controller lag (which at 150ms was identical to the best I've personally seen from OnLive) and only resolved it via extensive rewrites for the sequel. This raises some interesting questions - if a game is off, if it doesn't feel right, is the user more likely to blame the game and the developer rather than the infrastructure?

In the here and now developers and publishers face interesting choices: does the current strategy of porting to OnLive and to an extent hoping for the best actually work? Can image quality and performance be improved along some of the lines suggested, or should it simply be accepted that some games can work rather well on the current delivery system while others produce a sub-optimal experience and should perhaps remain on conventional platforms only?

Going forward, if the future is a cloud-based system, it will be interesting to see how games built from the ground up using this delivery system benefit from bespoke optimisation. OnLive essentially works by interfacing a GPU to a hardware encoder. What if the developer itself is in charge of the video encoding directly? Long term, it'll also be interesting to see whether compressed video is the best transmission system, or whether server-side power can be used in tandem with a client-side renderer, which would at least help to tackle the picture quality issue.

Right now, OnLive deserve credit for coming up with a system that "works". In a sense they are trailblazing a whole new way of delivering gameplay. But is it the right way and will being first matter? It's early days for the tech and I'd be hugely intrigued to see the sort of approach to the cloud the major console platform holders choose to adopt in the future…

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Latest comments (1)

Francisco Toledo9 years ago
Congratulations for the article! Success relies not on guessing all the answers, but on making the right questions, and this was done really well here! Thanks for the insights!

Edited 1 times. Last edit by Francisco Toledo on 3rd September 2011 12:04am

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